espressif/nghttp
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nghttp2 - HTTP/2 C Library

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nghttp2 - HTTP/2 C Library ========================== This is an implementation of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol version 2 in C. The framing layer of HTTP/2 is implemented as a reusable C library. On top of that, we have implemented an HTTP/2 client, server and proxy. We have also developed load test and benchmarking tools for HTTP/2. An HPACK encoder and decoder are available as a public API. Development Status ------------------ nghttp2 was originally developed based on `RFC 7540 <https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7540>`_ HTTP/2 and `RFC 7541 <https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7541>`_ HPACK - Header Compression for HTTP/2. Now we are updating our code to implement `RFC 9113 <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/rfc9113>`_. The nghttp2 code base was forked from the spdylay (https://github.com/tatsuhiro-t/spdylay) project. Public Test Server ------------------ The following endpoints are available to try out our nghttp2 implementation. * https://nghttp2.org/ (TLS + ALPN/NPN and HTTP/3) This endpoint supports ``h2``, ``h2-16``, ``h2-14``, and ``http/1.1`` via ALPN/NPN and requires TLSv1.2 for HTTP/2 connection. It also supports HTTP/3. * http://nghttp2.org/ (HTTP Upgrade and HTTP/2 Direct) ``h2c`` and ``http/1.1``. Requirements ------------ The following package is required to build the libnghttp2 library: * pkg-config >= 0.20 To build and run the unit test programs, the following package is required: * cunit >= 2.1 To build the documentation, you need to install: * sphinx (http://sphinx-doc.org/) If you need libnghttp2 (C library) only, then the above packages are all you need. Use ``--enable-lib-only`` to ensure that only libnghttp2 is built. This avoids potential build error related to building bundled applications. To build and run the application programs (``nghttp``, ``nghttpd``, ``nghttpx`` and ``h2load``) in the ``src`` directory, the following packages are required: * OpenSSL >= 1.0.1 * libev >= 4.11 * zlib >= 1.2.3 * libc-ares >= 1.7.5 ALPN support requires OpenSSL >= 1.0.2 (released 22 January 2015). LibreSSL >= 2.2.0 can be used instead of OpenSSL, but OpenSSL has more features than LibreSSL at the time of this writing. To enable ``-a`` option (getting linked assets from the downloaded resource) in ``nghttp``, the following package is required: * libxml2 >= 2.6.26 To enable systemd support in nghttpx, the following package is required: * libsystemd-dev >= 209 The HPACK tools require the following package: * jansson >= 2.5 To build sources under the examples directory, libevent is required: * libevent-openssl >= 2.0.8 To mitigate heap fragmentation in long running server programs (``nghttpd`` and ``nghttpx``), jemalloc is recommended: * jemalloc .. note:: Alpine Linux currently does not support malloc replacement due to musl limitations. See details in issue `#762 <https://github.com/nghttp2/nghttp2/issues/762>`_. To enable mruby support for nghttpx, `mruby <https://github.com/mruby/mruby>`_ is required. We need to build mruby with C++ ABI explicitly turned on, and probably need other mrgems, mruby is manged by git submodule under third-party/mruby directory. Currently, mruby support for nghttpx is disabled by default. To enable mruby support, use ``--with-mruby`` configure option. Note that at the time of this writing, libmruby-dev and mruby packages in Debian/Ubuntu are not usable for nghttp2, since they do not enable C++ ABI. To build mruby, the following packages are required: * ruby * bison nghttpx supports `neverbleed <https://github.com/h2o/neverbleed>`_, privilege separation engine for OpenSSL / LibreSSL. In short, it minimizes the risk of private key leakage when serious bug like Heartbleed is exploited. The neverbleed is disabled by default. To enable it, use ``--with-neverbleed`` configure option. To enable the experimental HTTP/3 support for h2load and nghttpx, the following libraries are required: * `OpenSSL with QUIC support <https://github.com/quictls/openssl/tree/OpenSSL_1_1_1t+quic>`_; or `BoringSSL <https://boringssl.googlesource.com/boringssl/>`_ (commit 80a243e07ef77156af66efa7d22ac35aba44c1b3) * `ngtcp2 <https://github.com/ngtcp2/ngtcp2>`_ >= 0.13.0 * `nghttp3 <https://github.com/ngtcp2/nghttp3>`_ >= 0.7.0 Use ``--enable-http3`` configure option to enable HTTP/3 feature for h2load and nghttpx. In order to build optional eBPF program to direct an incoming QUIC UDP datagram to a correct socket for nghttpx, the following libraries are required: * libbpf-dev >= 0.7.0 Use ``--with-libbpf`` configure option to build eBPF program. libelf-dev is needed to build libbpf. For Ubuntu 20.04, you can build libbpf from `the source code <https://github.com/libbpf/libbpf/releases/tag/v1.1.0>`_. nghttpx requires eBPF program for reloading its configuration and hot swapping its executable. Compiling libnghttp2 C source code requires a C99 compiler. gcc 4.8 is known to be adequate. In order to compile the C++ source code, gcc >= 6.0 or clang >= 6.0 is required. C++ source code requires C++14 language features. .. note:: To enable mruby support in nghttpx, and use ``--with-mruby`` configure option. .. note:: Mac OS X users may need the ``--disable-threads`` configure option to disable multi-threading in nghttpd, nghttpx and h2load to prevent them from crashing. A patch is welcome to make multi threading work on Mac OS X platform. .. note:: To compile the associated applications (nghttp, nghttpd, nghttpx and h2load), you must use the ``--enable-app`` configure option and ensure that the specified requirements above are met. Normally, configure script checks required dependencies to build these applications, and enable ``--enable-app`` automatically, so you don't have to use it explicitly. But if you found that applications were not built, then using ``--enable-app`` may find that cause, such as the missing dependency. .. note:: In order to detect third party libraries, pkg-config is used (however we don't use pkg-config for some libraries (e.g., libev)). By default, pkg-config searches ``*.pc`` file in the standard locations (e.g., /usr/lib/pkgconfig). If it is necessary to use ``*.pc`` file in the custom location, specify paths to ``PKG_CONFIG_PATH`` environment variable, and pass it to configure script, like so: .. code-block:: text $ ./configure PKG_CONFIG_PATH=/path/to/pkgconfig For pkg-config managed libraries, ``*_CFLAG`` and ``*_LIBS`` environment variables are defined (e.g., ``OPENSSL_CFLAGS``, ``OPENSSL_LIBS``). Specifying non-empty string to these variables completely overrides pkg-config. In other words, if they are specified, pkg-config is not used for detection, and user is responsible to specify the correct values to these variables. For complete list of these variables, run ``./configure -h``. If you are using Ubuntu 22.04 LTS, run the following to install the required packages: .. code-block:: text sudo apt-get install g++ clang make binutils autoconf automake \ autotools-dev libtool pkg-config \ zlib1g-dev libcunit1-dev libssl-dev libxml2-dev libev-dev \ libevent-dev libjansson-dev \ libc-ares-dev libjemalloc-dev libsystemd-dev \ ruby-dev bison libelf-dev Building nghttp2 from release tar archive ----------------------------------------- The nghttp2 project regularly releases tar archives which includes nghttp2 source code, and generated build files. They can be downloaded from `Releases <https://github.com/nghttp2/nghttp2/releases>`_ page. Building nghttp2 from git requires autotools development packages. Building from tar archives does not require them, and thus it is much easier. The usual build step is as follows: .. code-block:: text $ tar xf nghttp2-X.Y.Z.tar.bz2 $ cd nghttp2-X.Y.Z $ ./configure $ make Building from git ----------------- Building from git is easy, but please be sure that at least autoconf 2.68 is used: .. code-block:: text $ git submodule update --init $ autoreconf -i $ automake $ autoconf $ ./configure $ make Notes for building on Windows (MSVC) ------------------------------------ The easiest way to build native Windows nghttp2 dll is use `cmake <https://cmake.org/>`_. The free version of `Visual C++ Build Tools <http://landinghub.visualstudio.com/visual-cpp-build-tools>`_ works fine. 1. Install cmake for windows 2. Open "Visual C++ ... Native Build Tool Command Prompt", and inside nghttp2 directly, run ``cmake``. 3. Then run ``cmake --build`` to build library. 4. nghttp2.dll, nghttp2.lib, nghttp2.exp are placed under lib directory. Note that the above steps most likely produce nghttp2 library only. No bundled applications are compiled. Notes for building on Windows (Mingw/Cygwin) -------------------------------------------- Under Mingw environment, you can only compile the library, it's ``libnghttp2-X.dll`` and ``libnghttp2.a``. If you want to compile the applications(``h2load``, ``nghttp``, ``nghttpx``, ``nghttpd``), you need to use the Cygwin environment. Under Cygwin environment, to compile the applications you need to compile and install the libev first. Secondly, you need to undefine the macro ``__STRICT_ANSI__``, if you not, the functions ``fdopen``, ``fileno`` and ``strptime`` will not available. the sample command like this: .. code-block:: text $ export CFLAGS="-U__STRICT_ANSI__ -I$libev_PREFIX/include -L$libev_PREFIX/lib" $ export CXXFLAGS=$CFLAGS $ ./configure $ make If you want to compile the applications under ``examples/``, you need to remove or rename the ``event.h`` from libev's installation, because it conflicts with libevent's installation. Notes for installation on Linux systems -------------------------------------------- After installing nghttp2 tool suite with ``make install`` one might experience a similar error: .. code-block:: text nghttpx: error while loading shared libraries: libnghttp2.so.14: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory This means that the tool is unable to locate the ``libnghttp2.so`` shared library. To update the shared library cache run ``sudo ldconfig``. Building the documentation -------------------------- .. note:: Documentation is still incomplete. To build the documentation, run: .. code-block:: text $ make html The documents will be generated under ``doc/manual/html/``. The generated documents will not be installed with ``make install``. The online documentation is available at https://nghttp2.org/documentation/ Build HTTP/3 enabled h2load and nghttpx --------------------------------------- To build h2load and nghttpx with HTTP/3 feature enabled, run the configure script with ``--enable-http3``. For nghttpx to reload configurations and swapping its executable while gracefully terminating old worker processes, eBPF is required. Run the configure script with ``--enable-http3 --with-libbpf`` to build eBPF program. The QUIC keying material must be set with ``--frontend-quic-secret-file`` in order to keep the existing connections alive during reload. The detailed steps to build HTTP/3 enabled h2load and nghttpx follow. Build custom OpenSSL: .. code-block:: text $ git clone --depth 1 -b OpenSSL_1_1_1t+quic https://github.com/quictls/openssl $ cd openssl $ ./config --prefix=$PWD/build --openssldir=/etc/ssl $ make -j$(nproc) $ make install_sw $ cd .. Build nghttp3: .. code-block:: text $ git clone --depth 1 -b v0.8.0 https://github.com/ngtcp2/nghttp3 $ cd nghttp3 $ autoreconf -i $ ./configure --prefix=$PWD/build --enable-lib-only $ make -j$(nproc) $ make install $ cd .. Build ngtcp2: .. code-block:: text $ git clone --depth 1 -b v0.13.1 https://github.com/ngtcp2/ngtcp2 $ cd ngtcp2 $ autoreconf -i $ ./configure --prefix=$PWD/build --enable-lib-only \ PKG_CONFIG_PATH="$PWD/../openssl/build/lib/pkgconfig" $ make -j$(nproc) $ make install $ cd .. If your Linux distribution does not have libbpf-dev >= 0.7.0, build from source: .. code-block:: text $ git clone --depth 1 -b v1.1.0 https://github.com/libbpf/libbpf $ cd libbpf $ PREFIX=$PWD/build make -C src install $ cd .. Build nghttp2: .. code-block:: text $ git clone https://github.com/nghttp2/nghttp2 $ cd nghttp2 $ git submodule update --init $ autoreconf -i $ ./configure --with-mruby --with-neverbleed --enable-http3 --with-libbpf \ CC=clang-14 CXX=clang++-14 \ PKG_CONFIG_PATH="$PWD/../openssl/build/lib/pkgconfig:$PWD/../nghttp3/build/lib/pkgconfig:$PWD/../ngtcp2/build/lib/pkgconfig:$PWD/../libbpf/build/lib64/pkgconfig" \ LDFLAGS="$LDFLAGS -Wl,-rpath,$PWD/../openssl/build/lib -Wl,-rpath,$PWD/../libbpf/build/lib64" $ make -j$(nproc) The eBPF program ``reuseport_kern.o`` should be found under bpf directory. Pass ``--quic-bpf-program-file=bpf/reuseport_kern.o`` option to nghttpx to load it. See also `HTTP/3 section in nghttpx - HTTP/2 proxy - HOW-TO <https://nghttp2.org/documentation/nghttpx-howto.html#http-3>`_. Unit tests ---------- Unit tests are done by simply running ``make check``. Integration tests ----------------- We have the integration tests for the nghttpx proxy server. The tests are written in the `Go programming language <http://golang.org/>`_ and uses its testing framework. We depend on the following libraries: * golang.org/x/net/http2 * golang.org/x/net/websocket * https://github.com/tatsuhiro-t/go-nghttp2 Go modules will download these dependencies automatically. To run the tests, run the following command under ``integration-tests`` directory: .. code-block:: text $ make it Inside the tests, we use port 3009 to run the test subject server. Migration from v0.7.15 or earlier --------------------------------- nghttp2 v1.0.0 introduced several backward incompatible changes. In this section, we describe these changes and how to migrate to v1.0.0. ALPN protocol ID is now ``h2`` and ``h2c`` ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Previously we announced ``h2-14`` and ``h2c-14``. v1.0.0 implements final protocol version, and we changed ALPN ID to ``h2`` and ``h2c``. The macros ``NGHTTP2_PROTO_VERSION_ID``, ``NGHTTP2_PROTO_VERSION_ID_LEN``, ``NGHTTP2_CLEARTEXT_PROTO_VERSION_ID``, and ``NGHTTP2_CLEARTEXT_PROTO_VERSION_ID_LEN`` have been updated to reflect this change. Basically, existing applications do not have to do anything, just recompiling is enough for this change. Use word "client magic" where we use "client connection preface" ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ We use "client connection preface" to mean first 24 bytes of client connection preface. This is technically not correct, since client connection preface is composed of 24 bytes client magic byte string followed by SETTINGS frame. For clarification, we call "client magic" for this 24 bytes byte string and updated API. * ``NGHTTP2_CLIENT_CONNECTION_PREFACE`` was replaced with ``NGHTTP2_CLIENT_MAGIC``. * ``NGHTTP2_CLIENT_CONNECTION_PREFACE_LEN`` was replaced with ``NGHTTP2_CLIENT_MAGIC_LEN``. * ``NGHTTP2_BAD_PREFACE`` was renamed as ``NGHTTP2_BAD_CLIENT_MAGIC`` The already deprecated ``NGHTTP2_CLIENT_CONNECTION_HEADER`` and ``NGHTTP2_CLIENT_CONNECTION_HEADER_LEN`` were removed. If application uses these macros, just replace old ones with new ones. Since v1.0.0, client magic is sent by library (see next subsection), so client application may just remove these macro use. Client magic is sent by library +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Previously nghttp2 library did not send client magic, which is first 24 bytes byte string of client connection preface, and client applications have to send it by themselves. Since v1.0.0, client magic is sent by library via first call of ``nghttp2_session_send()`` or ``nghttp2_session_mem_send()``. The client applications which send client magic must remove the relevant code. Remove HTTP Alternative Services (Alt-Svc) related code +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Alt-Svc specification is not finalized yet. To make our API stable, we have decided to remove all Alt-Svc related API from nghttp2. * ``NGHTTP2_EXT_ALTSVC`` was removed. * ``nghttp2_ext_altsvc`` was removed. We have already removed the functionality of Alt-Svc in v0.7 series and they have been essentially noop. The application using these macro and struct, remove those lines. Use nghttp2_error in nghttp2_on_invalid_frame_recv_callback +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Previously ``nghttp2_on_invalid_frame_recv_cb_called`` took the ``error_code``, defined in ``nghttp2_error_code``, as parameter. But they are not detailed enough to debug. Therefore, we decided to use more detailed ``nghttp2_error`` values instead. The application using this callback should update the callback signature. If it treats ``error_code`` as HTTP/2 error code, update the code so that it is treated as ``nghttp2_error``. Receive client magic by default +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Previously nghttp2 did not process client magic (24 bytes byte string). To make it deal with it, we had to use ``nghttp2_option_set_recv_client_preface()``. Since v1.0.0, nghttp2 processes client magic by default and ``nghttp2_option_set_recv_client_preface()`` was removed. Some application may want to disable this behaviour, so we added ``nghttp2_option_set_no_recv_client_magic()`` to achieve this. The application using ``nghttp2_option_set_recv_client_preface()`` with nonzero value, just remove it. The application using ``nghttp2_option_set_recv_client_preface()`` with zero value or not using it must use ``nghttp2_option_set_no_recv_client_magic()`` with nonzero value. Client, Server and Proxy programs --------------------------------- The ``src`` directory contains the HTTP/2 client, server and proxy programs. nghttp - client +++++++++++++++ ``nghttp`` is a HTTP/2 client. It can connect to the HTTP/2 server with prior knowledge, HTTP Upgrade and NPN/ALPN TLS extension. It has verbose output mode for framing information. Here is sample output from ``nghttp`` client: .. code-block:: text $ nghttp -nv https://nghttp2.org [ 0.190] Connected The negotiated protocol: h2 [ 0.212] recv SETTINGS frame <length=12, flags=0x00, stream_id=0> (niv=2) [SETTINGS_MAX_CONCURRENT_STREAMS(0x03):100] [SETTINGS_INITIAL_WINDOW_SIZE(0x04):65535] [ 0.212] send SETTINGS frame <length=12, flags=0x00, stream_id=0> (niv=2) [SETTINGS_MAX_CONCURRENT_STREAMS(0x03):100] [SETTINGS_INITIAL_WINDOW_SIZE(0x04):65535] [ 0.212] send SETTINGS frame <length=0, flags=0x01, stream_id=0> ; ACK (niv=0) [ 0.212] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=3> (dep_stream_id=0, weight=201, exclusive=0) [ 0.212] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=5> (dep_stream_id=0, weight=101, exclusive=0) [ 0.212] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=7> (dep_stream_id=0, weight=1, exclusive=0) [ 0.212] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=9> (dep_stream_id=7, weight=1, exclusive=0) [ 0.212] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=11> (dep_stream_id=3, weight=1, exclusive=0) [ 0.212] send HEADERS frame <length=39, flags=0x25, stream_id=13> ; END_STREAM | END_HEADERS | PRIORITY (padlen=0, dep_stream_id=11, weight=16, exclusive=0) ; Open new stream :method: GET :path: / :scheme: https :authority: nghttp2.org accept: */* accept-encoding: gzip, deflate user-agent: nghttp2/1.0.1-DEV [ 0.221] recv SETTINGS frame <length=0, flags=0x01, stream_id=0> ; ACK (niv=0) [ 0.221] recv (stream_id=13) :method: GET [ 0.221] recv (stream_id=13) :scheme: https [ 0.221] recv (stream_id=13) :path: /stylesheets/screen.css [ 0.221] recv (stream_id=13) :authority: nghttp2.org [ 0.221] recv (stream_id=13) accept-encoding: gzip, deflate [ 0.222] recv (stream_id=13) user-agent: nghttp2/1.0.1-DEV [ 0.222] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=50, flags=0x04, stream_id=13> ; END_HEADERS (padlen=0, promised_stream_id=2) [ 0.222] recv (stream_id=13) :status: 200 [ 0.222] recv (stream_id=13) date: Thu, 21 May 2015 16:38:14 GMT [ 0.222] recv (stream_id=13) content-type: text/html [ 0.222] recv (stream_id=13) last-modified: Fri, 15 May 2015 15:38:06 GMT [ 0.222] recv (stream_id=13) etag: W/"555612de-19f6" [ 0.222] recv (stream_id=13) link: </stylesheets/screen.css>; rel=preload; as=stylesheet [ 0.222] recv (stream_id=13) content-encoding: gzip [ 0.222] recv (stream_id=13) server: nghttpx nghttp2/1.0.1-DEV [ 0.222] recv (stream_id=13) via: 1.1 nghttpx [ 0.222] recv (stream_id=13) strict-transport-security: max-age=31536000 [ 0.222] recv HEADERS frame <length=166, flags=0x04, stream_id=13> ; END_HEADERS (padlen=0) ; First response header [ 0.222] recv DATA frame <length=2601, flags=0x01, stream_id=13> ; END_STREAM [ 0.222] recv (stream_id=2) :status: 200 [ 0.222] recv (stream_id=2) date: Thu, 21 May 2015 16:38:14 GMT [ 0.222] recv (stream_id=2) content-type: text/css [ 0.222] recv (stream_id=2) last-modified: Fri, 15 May 2015 15:38:06 GMT [ 0.222] recv (stream_id=2) etag: W/"555612de-9845" [ 0.222] recv (stream_id=2) content-encoding: gzip [ 0.222] recv (stream_id=2) server: nghttpx nghttp2/1.0.1-DEV [ 0.222] recv (stream_id=2) via: 1.1 nghttpx [ 0.222] recv (stream_id=2) strict-transport-security: max-age=31536000 [ 0.222] recv HEADERS frame <length=32, flags=0x04, stream_id=2> ; END_HEADERS (padlen=0) ; First push response header [ 0.228] recv DATA frame <length=8715, flags=0x01, stream_id=2> ; END_STREAM [ 0.228] send GOAWAY frame <length=8, flags=0x00, stream_id=0> (last_stream_id=2, error_code=NO_ERROR(0x00), opaque_data(0)=[]) The HTTP Upgrade is performed like so: .. code-block:: text $ nghttp -nvu http://nghttp2.org [ 0.011] Connected [ 0.011] HTTP Upgrade request GET / HTTP/1.1 Host: nghttp2.org Connection: Upgrade, HTTP2-Settings Upgrade: h2c HTTP2-Settings: AAMAAABkAAQAAP__ Accept: */* User-Agent: nghttp2/1.0.1-DEV [ 0.018] HTTP Upgrade response HTTP/1.1 101 Switching Protocols Connection: Upgrade Upgrade: h2c [ 0.018] HTTP Upgrade success [ 0.018] recv SETTINGS frame <length=12, flags=0x00, stream_id=0> (niv=2) [SETTINGS_MAX_CONCURRENT_STREAMS(0x03):100] [SETTINGS_INITIAL_WINDOW_SIZE(0x04):65535] [ 0.018] send SETTINGS frame <length=12, flags=0x00, stream_id=0> (niv=2) [SETTINGS_MAX_CONCURRENT_STREAMS(0x03):100] [SETTINGS_INITIAL_WINDOW_SIZE(0x04):65535] [ 0.018] send SETTINGS frame <length=0, flags=0x01, stream_id=0> ; ACK (niv=0) [ 0.018] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=3> (dep_stream_id=0, weight=201, exclusive=0) [ 0.018] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=5> (dep_stream_id=0, weight=101, exclusive=0) [ 0.018] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=7> (dep_stream_id=0, weight=1, exclusive=0) [ 0.018] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=9> (dep_stream_id=7, weight=1, exclusive=0) [ 0.018] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=11> (dep_stream_id=3, weight=1, exclusive=0) [ 0.018] send PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=1> (dep_stream_id=11, weight=16, exclusive=0) [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=1) :method: GET [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=1) :scheme: http [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=1) :path: /stylesheets/screen.css [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=1) host: nghttp2.org [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=1) user-agent: nghttp2/1.0.1-DEV [ 0.019] recv PUSH_PROMISE frame <length=49, flags=0x04, stream_id=1> ; END_HEADERS (padlen=0, promised_stream_id=2) [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=1) :status: 200 [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=1) date: Thu, 21 May 2015 16:39:16 GMT [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=1) content-type: text/html [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=1) content-length: 6646 [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=1) last-modified: Fri, 15 May 2015 15:38:06 GMT [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=1) etag: "555612de-19f6" [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=1) link: </stylesheets/screen.css>; rel=preload; as=stylesheet [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=1) accept-ranges: bytes [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=1) server: nghttpx nghttp2/1.0.1-DEV [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=1) via: 1.1 nghttpx [ 0.019] recv HEADERS frame <length=157, flags=0x04, stream_id=1> ; END_HEADERS (padlen=0) ; First response header [ 0.019] recv DATA frame <length=6646, flags=0x01, stream_id=1> ; END_STREAM [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=2) :status: 200 [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=2) date: Thu, 21 May 2015 16:39:16 GMT [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=2) content-type: text/css [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=2) content-length: 38981 [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=2) last-modified: Fri, 15 May 2015 15:38:06 GMT [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=2) etag: "555612de-9845" [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=2) accept-ranges: bytes [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=2) server: nghttpx nghttp2/1.0.1-DEV [ 0.019] recv (stream_id=2) via: 1.1 nghttpx [ 0.019] recv HEADERS frame <length=36, flags=0x04, stream_id=2> ; END_HEADERS (padlen=0) ; First push response header [ 0.026] recv DATA frame <length=16384, flags=0x00, stream_id=2> [ 0.027] recv DATA frame <length=7952, flags=0x00, stream_id=2> [ 0.027] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=0> (window_size_increment=33343) [ 0.032] send WINDOW_UPDATE frame <length=4, flags=0x00, stream_id=2> (window_size_increment=33707) [ 0.032] recv DATA frame <length=14645, flags=0x01, stream_id=2> ; END_STREAM [ 0.032] recv SETTINGS frame <length=0, flags=0x01, stream_id=0> ; ACK (niv=0) [ 0.032] send GOAWAY frame <length=8, flags=0x00, stream_id=0> (last_stream_id=2, error_code=NO_ERROR(0x00), opaque_data(0)=[]) Using the ``-s`` option, ``nghttp`` prints out some timing information for requests, sorted by completion time: .. code-block:: text $ nghttp -nas https://nghttp2.org/ ***** Statistics ***** Request timing: responseEnd: the time when last byte of response was received relative to connectEnd requestStart: the time just before first byte of request was sent relative to connectEnd. If '*' is shown, this was pushed by server. process: responseEnd - requestStart code: HTTP status code size: number of bytes received as response body without inflation. URI: request URI see http://www.w3.org/TR/resource-timing/#processing-model sorted by 'complete' id responseEnd requestStart process code size request path 13 +37.19ms +280us 36.91ms 200 2K / 2 +72.65ms * +36.38ms 36.26ms 200 8K /stylesheets/screen.css 17 +77.43ms +38.67ms 38.75ms 200 3K /javascripts/octopress.js 15 +78.12ms +38.66ms 39.46ms 200 3K /javascripts/modernizr-2.0.js Using the ``-r`` option, ``nghttp`` writes more detailed timing data to the given file in HAR format. nghttpd - server ++++++++++++++++ ``nghttpd`` is a multi-threaded static web server. By default, it uses SSL/TLS connection. Use ``--no-tls`` option to disable it. ``nghttpd`` only accepts HTTP/2 connections via NPN/ALPN or direct HTTP/2 connections. No HTTP Upgrade is supported. The ``-p`` option allows users to configure server push. Just like ``nghttp``, it has a verbose output mode for framing information. Here is sample output from ``nghttpd``: .. code-block:: text $ nghttpd --no-tls -v 8080 IPv4: listen 0.0.0.0:8080 IPv6: listen :::8080 [id=1] [ 1.521] send SETTINGS frame <length=6, flags=0x00, stream_id=0> (niv=1) [SETTINGS_MAX_CONCURRENT_STREAMS(0x03):100] [id=1] [ 1.521] recv SETTINGS frame <length=12, flags=0x00, stream_id=0> (niv=2) [SETTINGS_MAX_CONCURRENT_STREAMS(0x03):100] [SETTINGS_INITIAL_WINDOW_SIZE(0x04):65535] [id=1] [ 1.521] recv SETTINGS frame <length=0, flags=0x01, stream_id=0> ; ACK (niv=0) [id=1] [ 1.521] recv PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=3> (dep_stream_id=0, weight=201, exclusive=0) [id=1] [ 1.521] recv PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=5> (dep_stream_id=0, weight=101, exclusive=0) [id=1] [ 1.521] recv PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=7> (dep_stream_id=0, weight=1, exclusive=0) [id=1] [ 1.521] recv PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=9> (dep_stream_id=7, weight=1, exclusive=0) [id=1] [ 1.521] recv PRIORITY frame <length=5, flags=0x00, stream_id=11> (dep_stream_id=3, weight=1, exclusive=0) [id=1] [ 1.521] recv (stream_id=13) :method: GET [id=1] [ 1.521] recv (stream_id=13) :path: / [id=1] [ 1.521] recv (stream_id=13) :scheme: http [id=1] [ 1.521] recv (stream_id=13) :authority: localhost:8080 [id=1] [ 1.521] recv (stream_id=13) accept: */* [id=1] [ 1.521] recv (stream_id=13) accept-encoding: gzip, deflate [id=1] [ 1.521] recv (stream_id=13) user-agent: nghttp2/1.0.0-DEV [id=1] [ 1.521] recv HEADERS frame <length=41, flags=0x25, stream_id=13> ; END_STREAM | END_HEADERS | PRIORITY (padlen=0, dep_stream_id=11, weight=16, exclusive=0) ; Open new stream [id=1] [ 1.521] send SETTINGS frame <length=0, flags=0x01, stream_id=0> ; ACK (niv=0) [id=1] [ 1.521] send HEADERS frame <length=86, flags=0x04, stream_id=13> ; END_HEADERS (padlen=0) ; First response header :status: 200 server: nghttpd nghttp2/1.0.0-DEV content-length: 10 cache-control: max-age=3600 date: Fri, 15 May 2015 14:49:04 GMT last-modified: Tue, 30 Sep 2014 12:40:52 GMT [id=1] [ 1.522] send DATA frame <length=10, flags=0x01, stream_id=13> ; END_STREAM [id=1] [ 1.522] stream_id=13 closed [id=1] [ 1.522] recv GOAWAY frame <length=8, flags=0x00, stream_id=0> (last_stream_id=0, error_code=NO_ERROR(0x00), opaque_data(0)=[]) [id=1] [ 1.522] closed nghttpx - proxy +++++++++++++++ ``nghttpx`` is a multi-threaded reverse proxy for HTTP/3, HTTP/2, and HTTP/1.1, and powers http://nghttp2.org and supports HTTP/2 server push. We reworked ``nghttpx`` command-line interface, and as a result, there are several incompatibles from 1.8.0 or earlier. This is necessary to extend its capability, and secure the further feature enhancements in the future release. Please read `Migration from nghttpx v1.8.0 or earlier <https://nghttp2.org/documentation/nghttpx-howto.html#migration-from-nghttpx-v1-8-0-or-earlier>`_ to know how to migrate from earlier releases. ``nghttpx`` implements `important performance-oriented features <https://istlsfastyet.com/#server-performance>`_ in TLS, such as session IDs, session tickets (with automatic key rotation), OCSP stapling, dynamic record sizing, ALPN/NPN, forward secrecy and HTTP/2. ``nghttpx`` also offers the functionality to share session cache and ticket keys among multiple ``nghttpx`` instances via memcached. ``nghttpx`` has 2 operation modes: ================== ======================== ================ ============= Mode option Frontend Backend Note ================== ======================== ================ ============= default mode HTTP/3, HTTP/2, HTTP/1.1 HTTP/1.1, HTTP/2 Reverse proxy ``--http2-proxy`` HTTP/3, HTTP/2, HTTP/1.1 HTTP/1.1, HTTP/2 Forward proxy ================== ======================== ================ ============= The interesting mode at the moment is the default mode. It works like a reverse proxy and listens for HTTP/3, HTTP/2, and HTTP/1.1 and can be deployed as a SSL/TLS terminator for existing web server. In all modes, the frontend connections are encrypted by SSL/TLS by default. To disable encryption, use the ``no-tls`` keyword in ``--frontend`` option. If encryption is disabled, incoming HTTP/1.1 connections can be upgraded to HTTP/2 through HTTP Upgrade. On the other hard, backend connections are not encrypted by default. To encrypt backend connections, use ``tls`` keyword in ``--backend`` option. ``nghttpx`` supports a configuration file. See the ``--conf`` option and sample configuration file ``nghttpx.conf.sample``. In the default mode, ``nghttpx`` works as reverse proxy to the backend server: .. code-block:: text Client <-- (HTTP/3, HTTP/2, HTTP/1.1) --> nghttpx <-- (HTTP/1.1, HTTP/2) --> Web Server [reverse proxy] With the ``--http2-proxy`` option, it works as forward proxy, and it is so called secure HTTP/2 proxy: .. code-block:: text Client <-- (HTTP/3, HTTP/2, HTTP/1.1) --> nghttpx <-- (HTTP/1.1) --> Proxy [secure proxy] (e.g., Squid, ATS) The ``Client`` in the above example needs to be configured to use ``nghttpx`` as secure proxy. At the time of this writing, both Chrome and Firefox support secure HTTP/2 proxy. One way to configure Chrome to use a secure proxy is to create a proxy.pac script like this: .. code-block:: javascript function FindProxyForURL(url, host) { return "HTTPS SERVERADDR:PORT"; } ``SERVERADDR`` and ``PORT`` is the hostname/address and port of the machine nghttpx is running on. Please note that Chrome requires a valid certificate for secure proxy. Then run Chrome with the following arguments: .. code-block:: text $ google-chrome --proxy-pac-url=file:///path/to/proxy.pac --use-npn The backend HTTP/2 connections can be tunneled through an HTTP proxy. The proxy is specified using ``--backend-http-proxy-uri``. The following figure illustrates how nghttpx talks to the outside HTTP/2 proxy through an HTTP proxy: .. code-block:: text Client <-- (HTTP/3, HTTP/2, HTTP/1.1) --> nghttpx <-- (HTTP/2) -- --===================---> HTTP/2 Proxy (HTTP proxy tunnel) (e.g., nghttpx -s) Benchmarking tool ----------------- The ``h2load`` program is a benchmarking tool for HTTP/3, HTTP/2, and HTTP/1.1. The UI of ``h2load`` is heavily inspired by ``weighttp`` (https://github.com/lighttpd/weighttp). The typical usage is as follows: .. code-block:: text $ h2load -n100000 -c100 -m100 https://localhost:8443/ starting benchmark... spawning thread #0: 100 concurrent clients, 100000 total requests Protocol: TLSv1.2 Cipher: ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256 Server Temp Key: ECDH P-256 256 bits progress: 10% done progress: 20% done progress: 30% done progress: 40% done progress: 50% done progress: 60% done progress: 70% done progress: 80% done progress: 90% done progress: 100% done finished in 771.26ms, 129658 req/s, 4.71MB/s requests: 100000 total, 100000 started, 100000 done, 100000 succeeded, 0 failed, 0 errored status codes: 100000 2xx, 0 3xx, 0 4xx, 0 5xx traffic: 3812300 bytes total, 1009900 bytes headers, 1000000 bytes data min max mean sd +/- sd time for request: 25.12ms 124.55ms 51.07ms 15.36ms 84.87% time for connect: 208.94ms 254.67ms 241.38ms 7.95ms 63.00% time to 1st byte: 209.11ms 254.80ms 241.51ms 7.94ms 63.00% The above example issued total 100,000 requests, using 100 concurrent clients (in other words, 100 HTTP/2 sessions), and a maximum of 100 streams per client. With the ``-t`` option, ``h2load`` will use multiple native threads to avoid saturating a single core on client side. .. warning:: **Don't use this tool against publicly available servers.** That is considered a DOS attack. Please only use it against your private servers. If the experimental HTTP/3 is enabled, h2load can send requests to HTTP/3 server. To do this, specify ``h3`` to ``--npn-list`` option like so: .. code-block:: text $ h2load --npn-list h3 https://127.0.0.1:4433 HPACK tools ----------- The ``src`` directory contains the HPACK tools. The ``deflatehd`` program is a command-line header compression tool. The ``inflatehd`` program is a command-line header decompression tool. Both tools read input from stdin and write output to stdout. Errors are written to stderr. They take JSON as input and output. We (mostly) use the same JSON data format described at https://github.com/http2jp/hpack-test-case. deflatehd - header compressor +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ The ``deflatehd`` program reads JSON data or HTTP/1-style header fields from stdin and outputs compressed header block in JSON. For the JSON input, the root JSON object must include a ``cases`` key. Its value has to include the sequence of input header set. They share the same compression context and are processed in the order they appear. Each item in the sequence is a JSON object and it must include a ``headers`` key. Its value is an array of JSON objects, which includes exactly one name/value pair. Example: .. code-block:: json { "cases": [ { "headers": [ { ":method": "GET" }, { ":path": "/" } ] }, { "headers": [ { ":method": "POST" }, { ":path": "/" } ] } ] } With the ``-t`` option, the program can accept more familiar HTTP/1 style header field blocks. Each header set is delimited by an empty line: Example: .. code-block:: text :method: GET :scheme: https :path: / :method: POST user-agent: nghttp2 The output is in JSON object. It should include a ``cases`` key and its value is an array of JSON objects, which has at least the following keys: seq The index of header set in the input. input_length The sum of the length of the name/value pairs in the input. output_length The length of the compressed header block. percentage_of_original_size ``output_length`` / ``input_length`` * 100 wire The compressed header block as a hex string. headers The input header set. header_table_size The header table size adjusted before deflating the header set. Examples: .. code-block:: json { "cases": [ { "seq": 0, "input_length": 66, "output_length": 20, "percentage_of_original_size": 30.303030303030305, "wire": "01881f3468e5891afcbf83868a3d856659c62e3f", "headers": [ { ":authority": "example.org" }, { ":method": "GET" }, { ":path": "/" }, { ":scheme": "https" }, { "user-agent": "nghttp2" } ], "header_table_size": 4096 } , { "seq": 1, "input_length": 74, "output_length": 10, "percentage_of_original_size": 13.513513513513514, "wire": "88448504252dd5918485", "headers": [ { ":authority": "example.org" }, { ":method": "POST" }, { ":path": "/account" }, { ":scheme": "https" }, { "user-agent": "nghttp2" } ], "header_table_size": 4096 } ] } The output can be used as the input for ``inflatehd`` and ``deflatehd``. With the ``-d`` option, the extra ``header_table`` key is added and its associated value includes the state of dynamic header table after the corresponding header set was processed. The value includes at least the following keys: entries The entry in the header table. If ``referenced`` is ``true``, it is in the reference set. The ``size`` includes the overhead (32 bytes). The ``index`` corresponds to the index of header table. The ``name`` is the header field name and the ``value`` is the header field value. size The sum of the spaces entries occupied, this includes the entry overhead. max_size The maximum header table size. deflate_size The sum of the spaces entries occupied within ``max_deflate_size``. max_deflate_size The maximum header table size the encoder uses. This can be smaller than ``max_size``. In this case, the encoder only uses up to first ``max_deflate_size`` buffer. Since the header table size is still ``max_size``, the encoder has to keep track of entries outside the ``max_deflate_size`` but inside the ``max_size`` and make sure that they are no longer referenced. Example: .. code-block:: json { "cases": [ { "seq": 0, "input_length": 66, "output_length": 20, "percentage_of_original_size": 30.303030303030305, "wire": "01881f3468e5891afcbf83868a3d856659c62e3f", "headers": [ { ":authority": "example.org" }, { ":method": "GET" }, { ":path": "/" }, { ":scheme": "https" }, { "user-agent": "nghttp2" } ], "header_table_size": 4096, "header_table": { "entries": [ { "index": 1, "name": "user-agent", "value": "nghttp2", "referenced": true, "size": 49 }, { "index": 2, "name": ":scheme", "value": "https", "referenced": true, "size": 44 }, { "index": 3, "name": ":path", "value": "/", "referenced": true, "size": 38 }, { "index": 4, "name": ":method", "value": "GET", "referenced": true, "size": 42 }, { "index": 5, "name": ":authority", "value": "example.org", "referenced": true, "size": 53 } ], "size": 226, "max_size": 4096, "deflate_size": 226, "max_deflate_size": 4096 } } , { "seq": 1, "input_length": 74, "output_length": 10, "percentage_of_original_size": 13.513513513513514, "wire": "88448504252dd5918485", "headers": [ { ":authority": "example.org" }, { ":method": "POST" }, { ":path": "/account" }, { ":scheme": "https" }, { "user-agent": "nghttp2" } ], "header_table_size": 4096, "header_table": { "entries": [ { "index": 1, "name": ":method", "value": "POST", "referenced": true, "size": 43 }, { "index": 2, "name": "user-agent", "value": "nghttp2", "referenced": true, "size": 49 }, { "index": 3, "name": ":scheme", "value": "https", "referenced": true, "size": 44 }, { "index": 4, "name": ":path", "value": "/", "referenced": false, "size": 38 }, { "index": 5, "name": ":method", "value": "GET", "referenced": false, "size": 42 }, { "index": 6, "name": ":authority", "value": "example.org", "referenced": true, "size": 53 } ], "size": 269, "max_size": 4096, "deflate_size": 269, "max_deflate_size": 4096 } } ] } inflatehd - header decompressor +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ The ``inflatehd`` program reads JSON data from stdin and outputs decompressed name/value pairs in JSON. The root JSON object must include the ``cases`` key. Its value has to include the sequence of compressed header blocks. They share the same compression context and are processed in the order they appear. Each item in the sequence is a JSON object and it must have at least a ``wire`` key. Its value is a compressed header block as a hex string. Example: .. code-block:: json { "cases": [ { "wire": "8285" }, { "wire": "8583" } ] } The output is a JSON object. It should include a ``cases`` key and its value is an array of JSON objects, which has at least following keys: seq The index of the header set in the input. headers A JSON array that includes decompressed name/value pairs. wire The compressed header block as a hex string. header_table_size The header table size adjusted before inflating compressed header block. Example: .. code-block:: json { "cases": [ { "seq": 0, "wire": "01881f3468e5891afcbf83868a3d856659c62e3f", "headers": [ { ":authority": "example.org" }, { ":method": "GET" }, { ":path": "/" }, { ":scheme": "https" }, { "user-agent": "nghttp2" } ], "header_table_size": 4096 } , { "seq": 1, "wire": "88448504252dd5918485", "headers": [ { ":method": "POST" }, { ":path": "/account" }, { "user-agent": "nghttp2" }, { ":scheme": "https" }, { ":authority": "example.org" } ], "header_table_size": 4096 } ] } The output can be used as the input for ``deflatehd`` and ``inflatehd``. With the ``-d`` option, the extra ``header_table`` key is added and its associated value includes the state of the dynamic header table after the corresponding header set was processed. The format is the same as ``deflatehd``. Contribution ------------ [This text was composed based on 1.2. License section of curl/libcurl project.] When contributing with code, you agree to put your changes and new code under the same license nghttp2 is already using unless stated and agreed otherwise. When changing existing source code, do not alter the copyright of the original file(s). The copyright will still be owned by the original creator(s) or those who have been assigned copyright by the original author(s). By submitting a patch to the nghttp2 project, you (or your employer, as the case may be) agree to assign the copyright of your submission to us. .. the above really needs to be reworded to pass legal muster. We will credit you for your changes as far as possible, to give credit but also to keep a trace back to who made what changes. Please always provide us with your full real name when contributing! See `Contribution Guidelines <https://nghttp2.org/documentation/contribute.html>`_ for more details. Reporting vulnerability ----------------------- If you find a vulnerability in our software, please send the email to "tatsuhiro.t at gmail dot com" about its details instead of submitting issues on github issue page. It is a standard practice not to disclose vulnerability information publicly until a fixed version is released, or mitigation is worked out. In the future, we may setup a dedicated mail address for this purpose. Release schedule ---------------- In general, we follow `Semantic Versioning <http://semver.org/>`_. We release MINOR version update every month, and usually we ship it around 25th day of every month. We may release PATCH releases between the regular releases, mainly for severe security bug fixes. We have no plan to break API compatibility changes involving soname bump, so MAJOR version will stay 1 for the foreseeable future. License ------- The MIT License

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idf.py add-dependency "espressif/nghttp^1.52.0~1"

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